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Invertebrate Brain Gallery

Many invertebrate animals have evolved a rich variety of brains (head ganglia). Unusually large brains of squids and octopuses and small but sophisticated brains of arthropods, especially those of insects, are among the most fascinating brains created on earth by natural selection. Here, photographs of invertebrates of 6 phyla, 35 orders and 47 species and those of their central nervous systems are presented, with brief explanations of their characteristics. Enjoy seeing the pictures and consider evolution of brains in invertebrates. These images can be only used for research and education freely. Providers (Dr. Makoto Mizunami) have copyright for images and documents.

Protophormia terraenovae Back to the top page of brain gallery
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Author Comment
kanzaki
2014-09-23
22:31
Left: Whole view of the central nervous system in the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae. In flies the brain (Br) and suboesophageal ganglion (SOG) are fused, and thoracic and abdominal ganglion are fused to become the thoracico-abdominal ganglion (TAG). Right: Enlarged views of the TAG. T1 LN, T2 LN and T3 LN are nerve roots running to the forelegs, middle legs and hind legs, respectively.

AN: antennal nerve
Br: brain
OL: optic lobe
SOG: suboesophageal ganglion
CN: cervical nerve
CC: cervical connective
T1 LN: prothoracic leg nerve
T2 LN: mesothoracic leg nerve
T3 LN: metathoracic leg nerve
TAG: thoracic-abdominal ganglion
FN: frontal nerve
PtN: pterothoracic nerve (wing sensory neuron)
HN: haltere nerve
AbN: abdominal nerve

Infomation

ID60
Authorkanzaki
Date2014-09-23
Seq
Views1064
Keyword

Arthropoda
  • Insecta
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