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Subesophageal ganglion
The suboesophageal ganglion is largely concerned with the processing of sensory information from and the motor control of the mouth parts. The mouth parts consist of three appendages, the mandible, the maxilla, and the labium. These appendages can be modified in various ways in different insect groups. For instance, many insects have paired maxillary and labial palps. In the bee, a part of the labium forms the unpaired glossae Axons of the receptor cells of the sensilla distributed on the mouth-parts project to the suboesophageal ganglion and in at least some insects also to higher areas. The suboesophageal ganglion also receives direct sensory input from the labrum and through non-olfactory sensory cells of the antenna. Generally, there are separate mandibular, maxillary, and labial nerves innervating the appendages (for example in the bee), but they can also be fused (such as in Dipera, in which there is a fused maxillary-labial nerve) At least in the bee, a little-known fourth nerve emanates from the labial neuromere: the labial gland nerve.

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