The protocerebrum bears to lateral protrusions, the optic lobes. Depending on the insect species, the optic lobe can be further subdivided into three or four neuropils. Medially,inbetween the optic lobes are located another conspicuous pair of bilaterally symmetrical neuropils, the mushroom bodies. . The median protocerebrum also contains unpaired neuropils, in particular the protocerebral bridge and the central body, which together form the central complex. The shape, size, and disposition of these dense neuropils differs somewhat between insect groups but the basic morphology is essentially the same. The optic lobes process visual information, the mushroom bodies are important for learning and memory related in particular to olfactory stimuli, and the central complex is thought to play a crucial role in generating behavioral output. The dense, clearly delineated neuropils are surrounded by neuropil areas without conspicuous structural characteristics.

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